問題:
女性が従来学問の世界で十分活躍できなかったのは、男性中心で作られてきた社会に原因があったことは疑う余地はありません。とくにわが国は従来年功序列の社会でありましたので、出産、育児のため女性が休むことは昇進の面で著しく不利でありました。今後は休んだ後の復職を容易にするとともに、復職後業績を上げれば速やかに昇進できる体制を作り上げて行かねばなりません。

解答例:
There is no denying that women's role in academia has been limited because the field has been constructed around men. Especially in our country, which has long rewarded seniority, taking a leave of absence for childbirth or child-rearing hinders a woman's opportunities for professional growth. In the future we must make it easier for women to return to their careers after absence and provide a system in which they can achieve swift advancement according to their job performance.

Translation Notes:
学問の世界 academic field(s), academia, the academic community
男性中心で作られた dominated by men, built with a bias in favor of men
年功序列の社会 meritocracy, a society in which status is awarded in accordance with age/years of service
著しく不利である a hinderance, a serious disadvantage
業績を上げれば・・・ in accordance with their accomplishments, as they demonstrate their workplace achievements

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